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"God created Heaven and Earth"
"Yes, but how?"

On God  &  the World 



Gravity, Work and Thermodynamics
Gravity, Work and Thermodynamics

Compilation [ PDF ]

"Just as Christians believe in three things that are only one, the Trinity, so I believe in two things that are one and the same, [...] I believe in matter, which is both force and mass at the same time, [... ] how shabby and empty it is to say, 'I believe in one god'"

- Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Suspicion

Oh, that I would know
what holds the world
together at the core!

(Faust: The Tragedy; Part One)

From an economic point of view, the result of human action is always zero, since the assets and debts split up in the production process cancel each other out; and physically the result is a loss.

So where, then, is the profit?

Now whether there is a God,
or not -

There is a basic mechanism in the universe, an ordering force, that is also the source of all life on earth.

And the opposing force, that throws everything together, we call
evil or the Devil.

Gr. "Diabolos": The confounder, slanderer;
The Devil mixes, but God discerns ]

Or as they say: Heaven has strict admission criteria, while Hell is open to everyone; there, everything is turned on its head, as in rolling the dice - The firm becomes hazy, the hazy torn apart.


Working on it


- Prospect 1850 -

The Physics of Theology

[ Going Astray, 150 years ago ]

The irrefutable interpretation of Charles Darwin's observations meant that humans, and the world as such, had not, as previously believed, been created by the will and in the image of an Almighty Creator, not even in foresight and over time, or, indeed, as lesser descendents and reflections of Olympian Gods; but that they were, more or less, the random product of an ongoing development, whose future course was impossible for its creatures to predict.

The people of the western world, up to then safe in their self - interpretation as Children of God, were, in  their majority, suddenly lost as babes in the woods, with God as their benign creator being replaced by blind chance; who was now to give them their daily bread?

Along came Karl Marx, who had been studying the effects of modern industrialization on human society, and told them that THEY will. This is their chance; they will, from now on, with the help of modern science and industry, not only feed themselves and all, but literally become God; their human labor, he said, ignoring the steam engines and water mills being deployed everywhere in rapid acceleration, was the Creator of all Values; and therefore always had been.

So humans, now on their own, having finally taken the crown of creation, would be, always have been, the creators of everything. Who else? And this secular world view they called "scientific".

Industrial mill owners heartily agreed, and immediately fighting broke out in the streets as to who should reap the profits stemming from this work, with poor Rudolf Clausius muttering in the background that, according to his own and slightly different scientific findings and interpretations, machines ( and by implication, humans ) could not even produce a surplus; but on the contrary were forced to destroy it.

Unfortunately, Clausius' further calculations pertaining to something he called "entropy", or the inability to do work, were hard to interpret ( and possibly technically incorrect ), and his views were taken with a great deal of salt; his Laws of Thermodynamics however, so the enlightened said, surely applied to everything in the universe ( they do not ) but their own actions ( they do ); for if one is creator and king on the way to world domination, then one must be the one exemption, n'est pas?

Even if one is the result of natural selection, and therefore no exception at all. But humans always have been one, so far their churches agree. So what now?

So now, having lost ( or gotten rid of ) their Creator, and with that, all inhibitions, "western" society, in a kind of tizzy of fear and fury, set out to conquer and change the entire world, which was now in their responsibility to do - in the responsibility of a species which was brought forth, so they themselves believe, by this very world in a mixture of chance and adaptation.

And their churches, having equally lost their way and raison d'etre, after a moment of uncertainty quickly jumped onto this new bandwagon, and once again took the lead, now in a very worldly sense; humans are now the sole creators of every condition, including their own; all else stays the same; hooray.

As a result of this mental mayhem, again in a strange combination of delusion and terror ( and, most of all, contrary to their own better knowledge and observation ) they now interpreted the world as a place where chance and chaos reigns ( it does not ), in which humans are called upon to bring order and stability ( they are not, and can not ); and, driven by their own hubris and desperation, they proceed to embark on the construction of a new Tower of Babel; the momentary expression of which is the multilingual mobile phone combined with unfettered global migration.

And very quickly, in true and fiendish consequence, humans then turn on themselves; for, as wayward products of random disorder, they are flawed, and always have been; but now this is no longer acceptable, for they themselves are responsible now as creators, and thus called upon to restore order, an order that has never been ( when they were not in charge ). And so the call goes out, at first, to self - optimize, to become perfect, a perfect human being, or something that cannot be; then to eliminate all wrong.

This first calls for body jewelry, then plastic surgery, then brainwashing, mindbending and social engineering; then, as their success is not sufficiently lasting, for panic-driven genetic engineering ( the others could be quicker! ).

Of course, this only narrows the pool from which natural selection, which goes on relentlessly, takes its material, driven by the imperturbable force of gravity as it is; this leads to humans practically throwing themselves out of the race for their own future; for, as they know, but will not accept, the word "perfect", both in biology and engineering, is just another way of saying "terminal".

What they also will not accept is that you cannot be in two contradicting states at the same time, and the choice is not one to make. Except, of course, while in the state of denial.

For at the end of that day, humans, as every thermodynamic life form on every world in the universe, will not have created themselves, cannot feed themselves, and can not sustain and renew themselves; but are as dependent as ever on external sources - no matter how much they will be able to control them. They are, most especially, dependent on gravity to continue to do its work - and take its time.

From complacency through existential panic and hubris, they will once have gone full circle; all they have to do is replace their old, static interpretation of their world by the new, dynamic one, and apply their 'rules for all the world' on themselves, and accept they are part of it.

Tracing The Continental Drift

The Aquatic Ape Theory

Egyptian Pyramids

The Second Law




A Journey to the Beginning of the World

vs. A Journey to the Center of the World

All is connected. Few have made the journey; fewer still have returned.
For I have not only visited the bowels of the earth; but I have also viewed eternity, and infinity.

  1. In the Beginning there was Gravity

    • The formation of the planet

    • Plate tectonics and angular momentum of the earth's core

    • Geography and geology - the angular momentum of the earth's core

    • Drift tracking method

    • The larger system: Earth, Moon and atmosphere

    • The influence of the rotation of the earth's core on the surface

    • Continental drift and mountain formation: Alps, Andes, Himalayas

  2. Atmosphere and Biology

    • The extinction of the dinosaurs

    • On flying

    • The wing drama

  3. Gravity and Thermodynamics

    • Thermodynamics, Gravity and Economics - Does a Potato Work?

    • The second law of thermodynamics: Work is costly business

    • The real physical basis of the economy

    • The first area: Thermodynamics

    • Motion through heat: From order to disorder

    • The second area: Gravity

    • Motion without heat (or heat through motion): From disorder to order in the universe

    • The third area: Human economy

    • No motion without heat: From order to disorder again

The physical basis of ecology and economy consists in the fact that all living beings, people, machines and moving matter on the interactive surface of this planet, according to the laws of thermodynamics with a loss, exploit an energetic and entropic gradient, and reduce it towards zero, which ultimately is generated and maintained directly and indirectly, and free of charge, by gravity; whereby gravity creates and maintains further necessary gradients, equally free of charge: immaterial ones such as 'above' and 'below', and material ones such as the separation of earth, water and air.

The costs arise, very real, in their reduction.

The second law of thermodynamics

allows for different formulations:

One statement is that, in a thermodynamic system, a difference in temperature can only equalize, but never spontaneously develop or increase.

But as since such differences in temperature not only exist in reality, but are in fact a precondition for the course of thermodynamic processes, and on the other hand cannot arise thermodynamically, this requires a mechanism that exists outside of thermodynamics and its laws; one that spontaneously develops or increases these necessary and existing differences in temperature.

The same can be formulated for energy and entropy gradients.

The force that creates temperature, energy, and entropy gradients outside of the laws of thermodynamics and thus makes them available to thermodynamics is called gravity.

As necessary as the thermodynamic conversion of energy is, without gravity it would not exist, nor would there be material bodies to convert it; there would also be no order or negentropy, without which life is impossible.

It thus forms the prerequisite for everything that exists beyond pure matter; and is - directly and indirectly - also the basis of all movement.

The flat sphere

Is this true? Has this been tried?

The Earth is a sphere. If you regard "level" as laserbeam-level on ( or rather, through ) a gravity-induced spherical surface, does the following happen?

On a sufficiently large, concrete horizontal surface leveled with lasers, the water should stand as a puddle after every rain, deeper in the middle than at the edge, as every body of water on Earth has a spherical surface. With a length and width of 5 km theoretically up to 50 cm deep, at 10 km already about 2 meters ( measured at sea level )

Die Erdkruemmung

- and nobody could explain why a deep, circular puddle would form on a completely flat earth after every rain, on a field that was leveled on sight without a depression in the middle - because it would not be deep, but high. If you lay down on the ground, you couldn't see the other edge of the field over it ... That is the change of perspective. The water is high; not the field deep. The field does not lower itself; the water bulges upwards.

Well, that the Earth is a sphere is known to humanity, at least to its scientific part, since around 2500 years. And it is not the case that the people "believed" in a flat Earth for those 2500 years; they just didn't care, if it didn't concern them.

A farmer leveled his field in such a way that the water level was the same everywhere - so he was paying attention to the force of gravity and not the beam of light; however, the fields were generally so small that the difference was negligible ( very few fields are completely flat, except in floodplains - but not really there either; the lake forming them had a curved surface... ). A scale or level is also based on gravity; so it is different everywhere.

So the farmer did not care about the spherical shape of the earth, because it had no effect in its dimensions, and farmers made up 80-90% of the population. But not so the seaman; if he drove too far out to sea, he lost sight of the coast and had to navigate by the stars. These in turn eluded the astronomers in their long-term observation; and the astrologers tried to explain this temporal conditionality...

For sailors, desert caravans and court astronomers, the idea of the spherical shape of the earth has always been important; but how many were there, if they knew this view at all? They also had the ecclesiastical and secular power elites against them, who wanted nothing less than a non-static, spatially indefinite system. No way! Above is above, below is below, and everything together will be so in all eternity - Amen, or heads off.

So if anyone drew any conclusions from the secret knowledge that all of this would only make sense if the earth were spherical - then he wisely did this quietly and without the knowledge of the authorities; unless the ruler himself was interested, like Prince Henry the Navigator, who was probably not purely by chance investigating the matter from the point most western from Europe's central power, the Vatican.

Another change of perspective, perhaps?

  • Assets and debts in an economy always correspond 1 : 1 ( the debts of one are the assets of another, in a global economy globally ); so the result of human action is always exactly zero, in monetary terms and overall as well.

  • From a physical point of view, the result of human action is always a loss, due to the laws of thermodynamics.

  • From a monetary point of view, zero, from a physical point of view an irretrievable loss - where, then, is the profit made?

The following text illustrates this phenomenon.

Gravity and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Arbeit, Schwerkraft und Thermodynamik



Movements of Sun and Mercury, as seen from Earth
The Orbits of the Sun and Mercury, as seen from Earth. 

Although the position is seen and measured correctly,
the resulting path is wrong.

The perspective is wrong

In the end, the whole answer to the question of "Life, the Universe and all the Rest" may not be "42" but "Gravity".

For the sake of entertainment,

Clem Snide: The Sound of German Hip-Hop

"Thermodynamics deal with irreversible processes, which according to Newton should not even exist"

- so someone once said.

Let us combine the two and consider the area of mechanical energy storage and recovery - a process that is reversible in principle ( and this is not to question the laws of mechanics and thermodynamics, which have been proven and applied for centuries; but rather their curiosities, requirements and connections ):

First, in the realm of dynamics:

The upper lake of a pump storage power plant is filled; through emptying it again, the stored energy is recovered ( minus the thermodynamic loss ). The energy difference is (not really) zero; Tons of water are now back in their original location.

In the meantime, however, they have been moved. By what?

Now, in the static realm:

A pendulum is deflected and swings to ( almost ) the same height on the other side. The potential energy of the pendulum is ( almost ) the same before and after the process.

Only now the mass of the pendulum is in a different location. What moved it there?

Both processes correspond to the swinging of the balance in a clockwork.

The matter becomes even more remarkable, however, when one considers that these two processes are not possible in in conditions of zero gravity: Outside of a gravitational field, a pendulum stops in any position. And if you accelerate a mass mechanically in a certain direction, as with a bowling ball on a table tennis table or a boat on a lake, you will need even more energy, to catch it again - without being able to benefit from its energy.

As it seems, this type of mechanical energy storage and recovery is only possible within the area of a gravitational field ( of course, exempting other, secondary ones, such as electrical, chemical, compressed air or spring-loaded ).

But even more important is the energy-generating and entropy-destroying effect of gravity:

A boulder in space, undetermined in location and speed (*), has neither kinetic nor potential energy, only a mass; however, if a planet approaches it with its gravitational field, it may accelerate that chunk to a speed that is higher than its own.

This means that this rock, previously free of energy, now has, in relation to the planet and to an increasing extent, both forms of mechanical energy.

And when it impacts, there is also free thermal energy: a temperature close to absolute zero turns into one of several thousand degrees.

And all without the use of external energy: this energy was simply not available before.

So could it be that, hidden in plain sight and yet unnoticed, an enigma finds its solution; namely the unconditional emergence from nothing, the source of all that exists, beyond the hydrogen cloud; and of the energy that dynamizes what is there, and ultimately enables life within it?

And, depending upon the situation, is this newly created energy, whose movement ( and inevitably disorder and loss ) producing laws we know so well, simultaneously and inextricably intertwined with its origin, the energyless and collocating force of gravity?

Could the quest for the Fountain of Youth, the eternal source of life, have come to an end here - even if  renewal cannot proceed without destruction; because nothing is lost in the universe, while having to be  endlessly re-generated?


* 1) Newton's first law of motion, as the law of inertia, states that objects at rest and objects moving in a straight line are equivalent; not moving at all and moving in a straight line are one and the same and cannot be distinguished; it is impossible to tell whether an object is stationary or moving in a straight line; this depends on the frame of reference.

2) Matter is passive and inert; it can only be influenced from outside. Objects cannot move by themselves: "If nothing happens, nothing happens."

- How then are living beings able to move?

From astrology to astronomy in economics

Within certain limits, what matters is not that something is correct, but that it is useful. It is not important that something is theoretically completely understood ( which, theoretically, is impossible anyway ), but only that its effect is adequately recognized; this is the only way a monkey can use a stick as a lever. Only in this way could people control fire without knowing anything about oxidation, and send an arrow into a target without having a clue about theoretical mechanics. To this day, flat, necessarily incorrect maps are used to navigate on a sphere, and nobody is lost if they are used correctly.

For millennia, humans have oriented their lives by the stars; and at all times, their brightest on every continent have tried to trace and calculate their paths. In this, they could only ever succeed within the framework of their theoretical possibilities. As long as they started from a flat ( rather: pyramidal ), static, asymmetrical Earth, and from their point of view divided the world into sectors ( in the Babylonian-Egyptian European area in divisions of 12, 60 and 360 ), and named them according to the zodiac, the results were wrong, but practicable.

Planetenbahnen In particular, as long as the Earth was in their theoretical center, the calculations and drawings of the planetary orbits were, from the point of view of this center, completely chaotic, albeit fairly regular - so regular, that astronomical phenomena could be predicted with great effort ( and so precise that unforeseen ones, such as comets and supernovae, sparked fears of Armageddon - and not unjustifiably, it was just the probability of such a catastrophe that was unknown ).

But it took three theoretical revolutions in order to be able to set probes on distant planets: The subjective, flat earth with fixed "above" and "below" ( which does not exist in the universe, in contrast to right and left ) had to be become a three-dimensional sphere, ( which, by the way, was already achieved thousands of years ago with admirable precision; but recognized ecclesiastically, and thus morally and socially, only since a few centuries, and finally only a few decades ago ); then the geocentric concept of the universe with the Earth in its center had to change to a heliocentric one ( whereby the theoretically incalculable, differently erratic planetary orbits first became circles, then ellipses fluctuating with ever increasing precision ); then, from a heliocentric world view of the universe, to one with a past big bang at its center, turning it from a spatial to a temporal one; and who knows how many changes there are still to come.

And one thing rests upon the other: Since the moon always shows the same side of the earth, it could be imagined as a disk if necessary; likewise the sun, which also appears as a disk on its daily celestial orbit around the earth. And as long as the Earth was represented as a stationary disc, which is orbited by the sun, that was still possible. But as soon as the Earth is to revolve around the sun, it almost inevitably has to become a 3-dimensional sphere; as a disc, it should either have always shown the same side of the Sun, 24 hours a day, or swirled around a certain diameter, which also introduces a third dimension.

Only when the imaginary disks of the Sun, Moon and Earth become three-dimensional spheres does the heliocentric world view make a superordinate sense. It was a tremendous revolution in thought indeed; for why people did not slip off the ball could not be explained with it; but it was obviously so, and thus "God's will" - period. The church could not have anything against that either. The idea of gravitation as a mutual attraction of mass came up much later.

It was possible to navigate within each of these world views; but not beyond. And every time a sacred building, oriented according to the so-assumed eternal stars, and with it the society oriented along these calculations got out of focus due to the dynamics of the universe, that society dissolved, because its fundamental beliefs, its stability were put into question, and with that the justification of its structure.

And just as ( and for the same reason, too, because man is nowhere at the center of the proceedings ) the anthropocentric, assumption-based, astrological world view had to become an acentric, observation-based, astronomical world view ( in which even time is no longer constant ), in order to move ahead, the the anthropocentric, assumption-based, economic ( actually ecological ) world view must become acentric, observation-based, new economical world view in order to escape the eternal cycle of seemingly unpredictable economic events.

Because, as in astrology, the calculations and accounts ( which include the macroeconomic state monetary systems as well as the microeconomic ones such as the presentation of taxes and duties, pension payments and so on ) are inconsistent, confused, baseless, complicated, and inscrutable in today's economy, which not even experts are able to fully understand ( not because they are stupid, but because it is based on false assumptions ) and, above all, only predictable to a very limited extent.

This is nothing less than the attempt, like of Eratosthenes of Cyrene at that time, to get out of a false worldview.

  1. Every work process involves an inevitable substantial and energetic loss

  2. This loss is not reflected in the economic balance sheets

  3. According to this reading, growth goes hand in hand with the exploitation of resources

  4. State economics is somewhat different from business economics, and economics cannot be seen outside of ecology

An outside paper on the subject by Lineweaver & Egan:

Life, gravity and the second law of thermodynamics [ PDF, englisch  ]

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